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CAROLINA HOUSE. 

IAS. A. REYNOLDS, Proprietor, Asieyllle, N. C, 

Rooms well ventilated and nicely furnislied. The table sup- 
plied with the beet the mountain market affords. Rooms 
especially adapted for the purposes of 

COMMERCIAL TOURISTS. 

This house is within easy walking distance of the business 
centre and Post-Office. 

$1 to $2 per [lay, $20 to $30 per inontli. 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR NO CHARGE. 

LAND OF THE SKY," 

The Finest Stock in the State ! 

We always keep on hand a specially selected stock of 

TOURISTS' SUPPLIES. 

Luxuries for the Lunch-Basket, Delicacies for Invalids, Fresh 
Fruits, Nuts, etc. 

FINEST FRENCH CANDIES. 

Cigars, Cigarettes, Tobacco. 

Everything always fresh and of the best quality. One price. 

WHITING & CHUNN,' 

Opp. Eagle Hotel, ASHEVILLE N. C. 



DESCRIPTIVE 



ILLUSTRATED GUIDE-BOOK 



North Carolina Mountains. 



THEIR PRINCIPAL RESORTS 



BT 

MISS CHUNN. 



" On every lieight there lies repose J' 



NEW YORK: 

E. J. HALE & SON, Publishers, 

No. 17 Murray Street. 

1881. 



I JUN 27 188U ] 



Copyright, 1881. 
IDA F. CHUNN, 

ASHBVIXLB, N. C. 



^- 



PEEFACE. 

It must be briefly stated in preliminary, that this 
little book — designed as a definite manual or guide to 
mountain resorts of Western North Carolina, as to rel- 
ative position, distances, etc. — does not pretend to 
exhaust the places of attraction in this extended re- 
gion. On the contrary, only prominent localities, 
with their approximate points of beauty or interest, 
are here outlined, leaving a wide field untouched ; as 
when we reflect that this great table-land, literally 
furrowed by mountains, is two hundred and fifty 
miles in length, with an average width of fifty miles, 
it will be understood at a glance that much more 
space would be needed to comprehend all. 

Of those embraced, it may be pleaded that the wild 
charm of untamed natural beauty does not readily 
yield to the garb of descriptive phrases or portraitures. 
Nature, to her real lovers, speaks far more appeal- 
ingly without aid or intervention. Some reader, 
glancing through, may exclaim with Horace Walpole, 
*' In truth there seems little but prospects ; and for 
these, unless I were a bird, I would not journey so 
far;" though the latter adds in excuse, '^ when ac- 



IV PREFACE. 

commodations are so wretched. " This may scarcely 
be urged in force, as throughout the country comfort 
is generally attainable, and in many instances much 
besides. As a rule, he who carries an appreciative 
spirit, and a reasonable purse, may iind an enjoyable 
resting-place almost anywhere. 

Certainly a very fair balance between charges and 
accommodation may be claimed for this region. As 
this suggests rates of board, and as it is the end of a 
guide-book to give practical information, it may be 
added that board ranges from fifteen dollars to forty 
and fifty per month ; average, twenty-five. Special 
rates of course to families and parties. More exact 
rates of special localities will be found in the advertis- 
ing pages. I. F. C. 



OO^TEISTTS. 



Page 

Preface 3 

Introductory 9 

Routes to the Mountains 13 

asheville and its surroundings 19 

The Black Dome, or Mount Mitchell 29 

Hickory-nut Gap 89 

Cesar's Head 51 

Haywood White-Sulphur Springs GO 

Cloudland— Roan Mountain G5 

Warm Spiungs 73 

General 'J'opograi'iiy, with Suggestions to the Sports- 
man 79 



ILLUSTRATIOISIS. 



Page 
Birds-eye View of W. N. C. R. R 11 

ASHEVILLE FROM BeAUCATCHER 17 

From Black Mountain 27 

Point Lookout — Cesar's Head 49 

French Broad River 71 



INTKODUCTORY. 

*^ If you would enjoy mountains, you must carry 
mountains in your brain. Nature plays at dominoes 
with you — you must match her piece, before she will 
yield it up to you." 

'^ But mountain scenery is stupidly monotonous — it 
is ever the same," is the objection sometimes urged 
against it by those whose sympathies or sensibilities 
— dare we whisper caj^abilities — are too contracted to 
embrace these huge children of earth. Ever the 
same ? O mantle of snow, spring-robe of verdure, 
flowered tunic of summer, flaming vesture of 
autumn ! O blue vail of distance, mourning vail of 
storms, white diaphanous drapery, and bridal wreaths 
of fog ! '^ O sunrise and sunset crowns of fire !" O 
fleeting cloud-shadows, flinging fitful frowns across 
their uplifted brows ! O ineffable richness of sunlit 
smiles on their stern solemn features ! O versatile 
spirit of Nature, capricious as childhood, or a woman's 
fancy ! unite to contradict the false aspersion ! 



ROUTES TO THE MOUNTAINS. 

Three primary routes conduct the traveller to that 
diversified table-land, within whose limits are em- 
braced the several points of interest herein described. 
Hedged in as this grand table-land is by the long par- 
allel boundaries of Blue Ridge and Great Smoky 
Mountains, and rent into numerous transverse valleys 
by a series of cross-chains, almost any route leading 
thither must scale these natural walls through some 
convenient gap. 

From the North and East, the most direct route, as 
affording through railroad transportation to some 
central point, is via Swannanoa Gap over the Western 
North Carolina Railroad, forming junction at Salis- 
bury with all the principal State hues. Salisbury is 
14:0 miles east from Asheville, the present terminus 
of this road ; and the tourist's great centre and ren- 
dezvous. 

The ride westward from Salisbury is comparatively 
monotonous until the mountains are sighted, and after 
the ascent of the Blue Ridge commences replete with 



14 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

the interest tliat a finely poised conjunction of natural 
beauty and sublimity, grandeur and loveliness, so 
amply confers. 

With a grade of a thousand feet to few given miles, 
the road-bed winds at daring heights about the moun- 
tain's cone, doubling upon its track in mystifying 
curves, and reaching at its greatest elevation 2657 
feet, affording at each stage of its progress w^onderful 
shifting views of mighty peaks or awful chasms, inter- 
minable forests, and glancing mountain streams. 

Several shorter tunnels pierce the solid rock before 
the great tunnel, at the head of Swannanoa Gap, is 
reached. This tunnel, a third of a mile in length, 
completes the climb. As tlie train emerges from its 
darkness, the valley of the Swannanoa lies in green 
loveliness below, with the rugged chains of Craggy 
and the Black in the north-east distance, and just be- 
side, on the west, the milder undulations of the 
Swannanoa range. Should the trip be made in June 
or early July, the mingled snow and rose glow of the 
abundant rhododendrons, massed in gorgeous prof use- 
ness amid an emerald setting of glossy foliage, w^ill 
charm every eye w^itli its prodigal wealth of color. 
Eighteen miles beyond the great tunnel — rolling west- 
ward with the Swannanoa River — Asheville is reach- 
ed ; and here, at present, the road terminates. 

Several places, lying along the line of the Western 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 15 

North Carolina Hailroad, that are frequented by sum- 
mer travellers, must find a brief mention. 

Hickory, an enterprising townshiji sixty miles west 
of Salisbury, has distant glimpses of the mountains, 
moderate rates of board, and frequently a number of vis- 
itors. Hickory is the usual dinner-station on this line. 

Morganton, twenty miles west, has fine mountain 
surroundings, comfortable boarding-houses, and an 
excellent climate. 

Twelve miles still west, lying seven miles oif the 
railway, but connected by regular hacks, are the Glen 
Alpine Springs. These strongly impregnated alum 
and chalybeate waters have a most favorable reputa- 
tion. A large hotel and prettily improved grounds 
render the place attractive to visitors, and immediately 
at hand are various peaks of the Blue Ridge. 

From portions of the South and East, the most direct 
route is via Saluda Gap, over the SjDartanburg and 
Asheville Hailroad, forming junction at Spartanburg 
with the Piedmont air line, and terminating at Hen- 
dersonville. This road, in crossing the Tryon Moun- 
tain, has a grade of 1100 feet, rising at one point 300 
feet to the mile. Burrowing through no rocks, and 
with less complicated windings than the JN'orth Caro- 
lina line, the ascent seems more marked and direct ; 
and the attractive loveliness of the region through 
which it mounts must win the traveller's admiration. 



16 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

Ilendersonville, tlie jDresent terminus, is 50 miles 
beyond Spartanlnirg, and 21 miles south of Aslieville ; 
daily stages connecting. Tlie former town, at an ele- 
vation of 2400 feet, claims a liigli, line climate and 
pleasant surroundings. 

Near by is Flat Kock, a collection of country seats, 
formerly owned and delightfully kept by Southern 
planters as summer homes. A few still remain in 
possession. 

A day spent in driving over the lovely grounds 
about these places will be enjoyed, as while the houses 
are merely pretty or comfortable summer dwellings, 
the ample grounds, richly improved, are well worth 
a visit — notably the flower-covered terraces of the 
Drayton place, the splendid avenues of giant trees on 
the Trenholm grounds, or the picturesque ruins of the 
old De Choiseul mansion. In the vicinity is the Flat 
Kock House, a large summer hotel of long reputation. 

From the west or south again is the Cumberland 
Gap route. From Morristown — reached by the East 
Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad — to Wolf 
Creek by rail, and thence by stage to the well-known 
Warm Springs, and on up the French Broad to Aslie- 
ville.* 

A fuller notice of this route may be found in the 
chapter on Warm Springs of this book. 

* From Wolf Creek to Springs 8 miles ; 45 to Asheville. 



ASHEVILLE AND ITS SUEROUND- 

INGS. 

"A PLACE of resort — that is only to say, 

A place where all sorts freely gather ; 
The ' twenty- four black-birds, ' the grave and the gay 
Here mingle, or jostle in wondrous melee, 

A human kaleidoscope, rather !" 

AsHEViLLE lias already been mentioned as tlie ter- 
minus of tlie State transmontane railroad, but to this 
mountain capital, tlie Hub of tlie region, and itself one 
of the most popular resorts of all, more extended 
notice must be given. 

Scattered over hill and down dale, on irregular ridges 
of a plateau formed from an abrupt extension of a spur 
of the Black Mountains, the town stretches over 
liberal spaces, and viewed from any of the surround- 
ing heights appears rather deceptively populous. 
(The recent census reports 2700 inhabitants.) 

At an elevation of 2250 feet above tide-level, sur- 
rounded, like the happy valley of Rasselas, by a 
majestically carved wall of mountains, the charm of its 
climate from May through October is unsurpassed in 



20 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

the cool bracing purity of its air, and the richness and 
glow of its sunshine and skies. Lat. 35° 35' ; long., 
82° 28'. 

For years a favorite resort for the people of its own 
State, and those of South Carolina, with a large nnm- 
ber fr(>ni the far South and a fair proportion of Nortli- 
erners, particularly invalids, as the railroad drew near, 
and access became more convenient, the place has 
steadily gained in pojnilarity, and during the season 
of 1880 rejoiced in a larger number of visitors than 
ever before. Ample accommodation for the multi- 
tude is provided, as, beside the various hotels, the 
greater number of private residences are opened to 
boarders during the summer, and throughout the 
adjacent country boarding-houses and hotels abound. 

The usual routine of summer- resort life is constantly 
interrupted by the severer mountain expeditions to 
the Black Dome, the Eoan, Csesar's Head, etc. Vis- 
itors from the Warm Springs or the Haywood White 
Sulphur, exchange with visitors from Asheville ; and 
thus, ever on the w^ing, the restless majority, like 
birds of passage, skim over the country, as each year 
it is growing more fashionable to ^' do " the moun- 
tains. Various adjacent views claim the visitor's 
early explorations. 

Foremost among these is the ascent of the small 
mountain directly east of the town, over whose crown 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS, 21 

the sun first flashes each day. '' To Beaucatcher for 
the sunrise, or sunset, or tlie finest view of tlie town," 
is the popular crj ; and, in trutli, for all three it may 
be highly commended. Seeming of insignificant 
height, and most easy of access, the greatest sceptic 
below must own his mistake when once the round 
summit is reached, and the exquisite landscape unrolls 
about him. At his feet — belted by green slopes and 
sheltered by leafy shade — Asheville lies, all blemishes 
concealed, and each beauty heightened by its fair 
surroundings and mighty background of circling 
heights ; chain upon chain, peak overtopping peak, 
they crowd the eye with beauty, lying against the far 
limits of the horizon like congealed billows of sapphire 
vapor.* Seen under the first level rays of earth's 
lusty bridegroom, or if the morning be foggy, and 
we miss his early advent, developed under the gradual 
lifting and shifting of the white mist — or, better still, 
viewed under the jewel-tinted light of sunset, when 
the azure shadows on the far heights deepen to ''a 
paradise of purple with golden sloj)es atween them' ' 
— the view from this summit is dear to every heart 
owning beauty's supremest sway. 

Of drives, perhaps the favorite is the longer one 
3 J miles westward across the French Broad River to 
Richmond Hill. Crossing the bridge one mile from 

* One hundred and eighty, it is said, may be counted. 



22 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

town, tlie road lies along tlie river's level banks for 
some distance ; then entering a woodland on the left, 
climbs in easy slopes to the outer boundary-gate of 
the hill. Thence along a breezy ridge, through 
shady, well-kept avenues of forest trees, to the inner 
gate, and a short, final climb conducts to the summit. 
The distinguishing charm of the Richmond Hill view 
is its breadth and variety, and the frequent lake-like 
gleamings of the river about its base. Diminished by 
distance, Asheville dots the north-east landscape ; 
swelling brow^i uplands and green woodland stretches 
make an enchanting foreground ; and still bounding 
all the far palisade of lapis lazuli, "the circuit of 
vast hills in fluctuation fixed," the limitless moun- 
tains. From the western brow of the hill the outlook 
is finest. Here the river rolls away, lost between 
neighboring slopes, and facing the observer the 
strongly marked peaks of Pisgah — lords of their range 
— gloom dense against the fainter sky. 

In descending, if exit be made through a side gate, 
a short drive will conduct to a deep shadowy glen, 
musical with flowing w^ater, where an ideal spring- 
house will afford a foamy glass of cream to any 
material-minded w^ayfarer. If one be a good walk- 
er, a stroll through the cool recesses of Spring- glen, 
along the windings of its brook, whose bracken -fringed 
banks are i^tarred with gentians blue and white, lobe- 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 23 

lias scarlet, and blue and amber azalias, and in tlieir 
season, the path leading down, gay with plumes of 
golden - rod and myriad asters, enjoyment will be 
greatly increased by this closer inspection. Indeed 
prolonged rambles about the wild, lovely base of 
Eichmond Hill— with its splendid forest vistas, and 
the wayward frequent curves of the river rippling in 
glassy lakes between — will fully repay the rambler, 
provided he he a good j^cdestrian. 

One and a half miles south from Asheville, the view, 
from Fernilmrst hotly contends the palm of beauty 
with either rival. Private property, the entrance to 
Fernihurst is courteously extended to the public three 
days of each week, and the eager multitude is prompt 
to take advantage of privileged days.* 

With the same mountain view, differing only by 
relative position, the special feature of this scene, be- 
side the lovely, pastoral foreground and setting, is 
the conjunction in the broad valley, 200 feet below, 
of the Swannanoa and French Broad Rivers ; the 
former, after fretting its banks with many a curve, 
losing its identity in the larger stream, whose acceler- 
ated onward sweep toward a distant gap, apparently 
exit for lowering sun or westering river, completes a 
picture breathing beauty, suggestive of Corot, In- 
ness, or Kensett. The matchless modelling and roll 

* Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. 



24 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

of the surrounding hills, the winding line of the smaller 
stream, the gleaming sweep of the Broad, the velvet 
textured valley, the distant, warden heights — these 
lend the irresistil)le details. AYlien greensward is 
turned to shaded gold, and gray water glows rosy or 
scarlet under reflected sunset flames, or is transformed 
to gliding'silver under the mellow magic of moon- 
light, words utterly fail of their office. 

For a mountainous region, the drives about Ashe- 
ville are numerous and excellent ; they may be ex- 
tended for miles up and down the bank of either 
river, or across the country, as fancy may suggest. 
The Sulphur Spring, 5 miles south-west, is much fre- 
cpiented, the road being excellent and the spring 
bubbling up in a stone basin under a rude shelter, be- 
tween two wooded hills, strongly sulphurous, and 
much noted for its medicinal virtues. 

Reems Creek Falls, G miles north, suggests a de- 
lightful horseback excursion for an afternoon, as also 
Elk Mountain, 6 miles north-east. The Elk is a favor- 
ite eminence, and commands a wide and varied pros- 
pect. Here, from the small Swiss settlement, the 
w^anderer may be refreshed with Elk Factory cream, 
or cheese, of local celebrity. Similar short expeditions 
may be multiplied indefinitely. 

Ten miles south of Asheville is Arden Park Hotel. 
The name is a happy one, as he who wanders amid 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 25 

the bosky greenery of this new-world Arden Forest, 
must admit. So wild and charming are its recesses, 
with ^' occasional streams upon the skirts of the forest, 
like fringes upon a petticoat," that one imbues the 
spirit of the green-wood, and '' fleets the time care- 
lessly as they did in golden days." Drowsing in its 
shade, on some midsummer day, the forest grows 
enchanted, and one instinctively matches in some 
strolling couple fair, mutinous Rosalind and her 
stricken Orlando. There is little, it must be admit- 
ted, in the " point device accoutrements" of your 
modern Orlando, to '^ demonstrate t;he careless desola- 
tion of a man in love," insisted upon by clever Rosa- 
lind ; but dreaming fancy is all-powerful, casts side- 
lights at will, and the surroundings of your lovers 
hedge off the commonplace, as they 

" Under the shade of melancholy boughs 
Lose and neglect the creeping hours of time." 

So you may persuade yourself it is All As You Zike 
It ! Should one abjure the air of sentiment the 
forest exhales, let him seek distraction within the 
hotel. Its picturesque parlors are peculiarly invit- 
ing. Eastlake and Clarence Cook have been presid- 
ing spirits in their fitting, and artistic needle-work or 
tasteful bric-a-brac claim the eye at every turn. In 
the dining-hall, where the soup is ladled from a tureen 



26 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

four Imndred years old, if this sestlietic antique appeal 
not to liis keramic soul, its savory contents, and its 
well-served successors in their order, will appeal to 
that discriminating taste, that Brillat-Savarin de- 
clares inferior to none. 

For the benefit of those bound by ' ' the twisted 
threads of advanced civilization," it may be added 
that at Asheville all needful comforts or luxuries may 
be found or obtained at short notice, as the railway 
and two lines of telegraph furnish swift communica- 
tion with the outside world. Within the town will 
be found a multiplicity of furnishing-stores and shops 
of various orders, many of them excellent in their 
special lines. A well-selected public library, fourth 
floor of Court House. 



THE BLACK DOME; OR MOUNT ^^ 
MITCHELL. 

" To me also it was given, after weariest wanderings, to emerge 
on the higher slope of that mountain which has no summit, or 
whose summit is heaven only." 

Let not the fear of weariest wanderings deter the 
traveller from undertaking a climb to the highest 
slope of this monarch of the system. 

Yerj weak invalids, or unusual bundles of nerves, 
or again, those who care nothing for beauty which 
costs, should not attempt the ascent of the Black ; 
but to every lover of nature in her grandest guise this 
trip is heartily commended, as repaying all exertion a 
thousandfold. Using Asheville as a starting point, 
two and a half or three days are required for full en- 
joyment, although it is possible to accomplish it in a 
less time. 

Modes of conveyance are of course optional ; but 
experience attests that the strong, light spring- wagons 
(Jersey or Watertown), with canopy covers if the 
heat is great, are most convenient. 



30 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

In attempting this mad climb — for this some of the 
nerve-bundles before alluded to will pronounce it, 
and suitably warn you — much comfort is insured 
'' by method in your madness," in the selection of 
suitable horses, or, still better, mules, and in the 
generous stocking of your hampers. As to dress, 
good sense substitutes clothes of the simplest, 
most convenient fashion ; only stipulating for light 
shade-hats (always becoming to fair wearers) and 
an apparently surplus number of wraps ; for let the 
mercury stand as it will below, the cloud-touched, 
wind-swept summit of the stately dome has an atmos- 
phere of its own, and necessitates warm and abundant 
wrapping. 

Reaching the Swannanoa, 2 miles from Asheville, 
the road, which is the county highway, and former 
coach line, lies directly along the banks of the river, 
with but few interruptions, for 10 or 12 miles. At 
Alexander's — a wayside house of ancient repute, 
above the third crossing of the stream — leaving the 
main road, the way turns sharply north, and presently 
enters the narrow valley of the North Fork, the head 
waters of the Swannanoa, finding its ice-cold trout- 
haunted source in the mountain we seek. 

With faces set toward the darkly looming flanks of 
Craggy and the Black, we enter the shadowy domains 
of these rulers, their thick spurs hedging closely 



NORTH CAROLINA 3I0UNTAINS. 31 

about ; and the sense of their immensity and lonely 
grandeur deepens apace as we crawl about their bases. 
Six miles from Alexander's, we reach " G-lass's," a 
roomy (?) cabin at the foot of the Elack, and the 
usual resting place for the night. Here the vehicles 
are dispensed with, as the real ascent must be made in 
the saddle. Here, too, guides are obtained and all 
final arangements concluded, as this is the last human 
habitation we shall sight on the journey. In arrang- 
ing the cavalcade next morning, that venerable beast 
of burden, the pack-horse, claims prominent atten- 
tion, carrying, beside the suj)plies of food for the next 
twenty-four hours, sundry blankets and rugs, and 
such light outfit of camp-traps as is absolutely de- 
manded. Though the summit of Mount Mitchell is 
only reckoned 12 miles from this cabin, yet so ardu- 
ous, steep, and unusual is the way, that many hours 
are consumed in traversing it, and it is advisable to 
take an early morning start, resting half-way up at 
the Mountain House (now in ruins) through the noon- 
day heat. Man and beast having been refreshed by 
rest and food, the remainder of the ascent may be 
made in ample time for the sunset view — a great de- 
sideratum — and to complete the primitive prepara- 
tions for the night camp. 

Each stage of the ascent is marked by varying 
growth. About the base of the mountain we climb 



32 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

some distance tlirougli a splendid forest of hemlocks 
and pines, enormous oaks, tulip-trees, locusts, wal- 
nuts, and hickories, succeeded by groves of chestnuts 
and maples, and later by chestnuts alone, somewhat 
dwarfed from their normal altitude. 

Above the old Mountain House (5460 feet), once a 
private summer-residence delightfully and hospitably 
kept, the sturdy birches are the last familiar holders 
of the soil. These give place to the distinctive moun- 
tain-growth, unending forests of balsam or fir. These 
darkly green fir-trees grow frequently in perfect 
cone-shapes, their broad, heavy bases meeting in close 
thickets, while the graceful tapering spires rise straight 
and slim to an appreciable 'height. From the dense 
eerie coloring lent by this balsam mantle, we derive 
the name Black Mountains. 

The narrow, tortuous trail we follow, hollowed out 
by storm -witches, imbedded with great boulders, or 
blockaded by fallen timber, is a study in its com- 
plexity, and many amusing incidents might be re- 
corded of its yearly pilgrims. 

Two and a half miles above the Mountain House, 
the trail strikes a ledge of the mountains, and follow- 
ing this for several miles across small, open prairies, 
or tiirough groves of lowering balsams, reaches the 
grassy level, where the horses ar^ dismissed and turned 
off to graze ; for just at hand rises the sharp rocky 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS, 33 

cone of the " Dome." A brief, stiff climb, and the 
impatient traveller has reached the summit of his 
desires. 

But how little do words avail, when above and 
around him lies a void immensity of space, and be- 
neath, not the "world and the kingdoms thereof,'' 
as he half expected, but a strange, new sphere, ringed 
round with light, wherein the only possessors are 
those huge motionless land waves men call moun- 
tains ! Myriad in number, magically varied in shade 
and color, these petrified giant billows sweep beyond 
the range of vision on every hand. From the north- 
east distance, as far as the eye can carry perception, 
swells the dark line of the Blue Ridge, dipping far 
below him in its near approach, save where some 
sudden uplift pierces sharply skyward ; undulating 
south-west to the South Carolina line, it is lost behind 
intervening masses. Slowly tracing back its course 
north-east toward Virginia, across the roll of its in- 
numerable spurs, the lofty Grandfather checks the 
eye ; with a nightcap of clouds perhaps, drawn about 
his venerable head. From the gray gleam of frozen 
rain on his locks, he gained his dignified title. Guard- 
ing as he does the eastern limit of the "neck " of 
this wonderful table-land, the eye easily moves across 
Tennessee ward to his companion sentinel, the Roan, 
in the IJnaka chain. These two mighty watchers 



34 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

form, with the Dome upon which the observer stands, 
an elongated Y, demonstrating doubtless in nature's 
stenography, '' Victors in the contest of height ;" as 
each are notable exponents of the three great ranges 
thej represent. South-west from the Roan extends 
the heavy broken bulwark of the Great Smoky, com- 
prising under different sections the Unaka, Bald, and 
Iron Mountains. Hazily through its upper passes — 
torrent-riven and deeply serrated — gleam far blue 
glimpses of the Cumberland. Bisecting the view at 
every turn south come the cross-chains — Newfound, 
Pisgali, and the Cold, somewhat diminished against 
the towering background of the Balsam heights. 
Nearer north-east, across the famous Linville crests, 
frowns the rocky face of Table Eock, and just beside 
stands the rostrated head of the Hawk's Bill ; and far 
off, across innumerable nameless subjects, and rolling 
lowlands, glimmers King's Mountain, of another cen- 
tury's fame. The westward curling line of the Black 
itself — fretted with minaret, turret, or sj^ire — divides 
abruptly at sharp angles into two rugged offshoots, the 
one running north, terminating in Mount Mitchell or 
the Dome, the southern spur forming the Craggy 
chain, celebrated for its floral loveliness and its trout- 
fijled streams. The flora of Craggy boasts the rare 
crimson and purple rhododendron. 

But what avails classification of ranges, or christen- 



NOUTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 35 

ing of lordly peaks ? It is the charm of these law- 
less owners of solitude that they mock man's efforts 
to reduce their grand chaos to order by means of 
classes and names. '' Centuries old are the moun- 
tains," and serenely unmoved, silent as the sphinx, 
fixed as the rock-ribbed earth, the spell of their awful 
beauty yields to no interpreter. Then, as the day 
slips away, and the westering sun '^ seeks the Hes- 
perides of the silent air," picture the nmltitudinous 
waves of light and color sweeping over the scene, 
shifting slowly from peak to peak, lending tints im- 
possible to transfer as to depict — an infinity of beauty 
momentarily varying until the golden galleon has 
dipped behind the horizon's farthest rim. 

Meantime, it is presumed that the invaluable guide 
and the practical spirits of the party have been mak- 
ing ready for the night ; gathering great heaps of 
resinous balsam boughs for beds, and liberal supplies 
of the skeleton timber, gleaming white about the 
summit, to use as fuel. 

*' Bring a red cloud from the sun. 
While he sinketh catch it ; 
This shall be for a couch, with one 
Side long star to watch it, ' ' 

Mrs. Browning might have suggested, if couchless 
she had stood by the " Cave of the Winds ;" but 
lacking the magic power, our tourist must substitute 



36 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

an odorous fir-mattress (siii^erior to Marcotte's best, 
so some worn wayfarer declares) covered over with 
blanket or nig, and bis arm for a pillow. The ruddy 
glow of the camp-tire will pale the side-long star, and 
be much warmer and more comfortable. The Cave, 
the only shelter the Black offers to its votaries, is a 
heavy scoop in the rock, perhaps 12 feet deep, some 
yards down the rear slope. With a granite roof, 
floor, and inner wall, he may brave a summer night 
even at this elevation, having its chill disarmed by the 
blazing fire to the front. Should he hear at the 
''wee sma' hours" the distant cry of the wolf, and 
awake next morning to a clear sunrise, his cup of 
favors will be full. 

The tribute of a passing thought to the lowly shrine 
on the summit — Professor Mitchell's grave — must 
not be omitted. A martyr to his spirit of discovery, 
he lost his life many years ago in the trackless wilder- 
ness of this mountain, and his remains being found 
after several days' search, were appropriately buried 
on the topmost peak, called in his honor, Mitchell's 
Peak. The mountain is his ageless obelisk, and he 
needs nothing but the gray heap of stones to mark his 
resting-place. It is strangely impressive — this shadow 
of earth's inevitable mystery, falling so far aloft. 

N^or must the exquisite mosses of the mountain fail 
of mention. Bedding about the roots and beneath 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 37 

the boughs of the fir-trees, the lusli richness and vivid 
verdure of these immense cushions of moss seem alien 
to one's idea of mountain growth ; ignorant of its 
birthj^Lace he would rather ascribe this rank luxuri- 
ance to some low marsh-land or succulent, steaming 
swamp. Green as tender joung foliage, its tiny 
feathery spears rise in thick lines like dainty minia- 
ture fern -fronds. 

It may increase the observer's admiring awe to be 
told that he stands on the highest reach of land this 
side of the Rocky Mountains, or that he peeps into 
six States.* 

As may be imagined, the descent is much easier 
and more rapid than the climb. After a sunrise and 
breakfast on the Black, evening of the same day finds 
the traveller in his hotel at Asheville. Timid riders 
— not relishing the steep droop of the horse's head — 
often prefer to Avalk down, and such Avill find a stout 
alpenstock cut from the upper portion of the balsam 
tree, a light, strong, and helpful staff. 

As to the best season for the ascent, it may be 
added that parties go up at all times from May till 
middle October, but in the latter month they may ex- 
pect a low temperature. The writer recalls the ex- 
perience of a party who made the ascent on the 6th of 
October ; after a night of severe chill they woke to a 

* Summit of the Black, 6707 feet. 



38 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

day of clear splendor, but with long icicles dependent 
from the trees. This touch of arctic beauty many 
would avoid. June offers the inducement of flowers, 
the exquisite kalmia and rhododendron. July, despite 
the thunder-showers, is good, from the full glow of 
its sunlight (desirable at least on the summit), but 
perhaps the latter part of August, after what is known 
as the August '' rainy spell " is over, or early Sep- 
tember, are best — a desirable freshness in the atmos- 
phere, and less liability to clouds. 



HICKORY-NUT GAP. 

" Pass and repass by the gates of their inaccessible fastness. 
Ever unmoved they stand, solemn, eternal, proud." 

Readily accomplished, the trip through HicJvorj- 
niit Gap claims manifold attractions ; the Pools, 
Chimney-Rock, High Falls, Bald Mountain, with its 
caves, etc., in addition to the grandeur and wild 
beauty of the route. This expedition is deservedly 
popular, and destined to become yet more so under 
improved conditions. Several methods of mak- 
ing it, as to time required, lodging-places, etc., are 
open to consideration. It is suggested that several 
days be given to the pass, making the comfortable 
farm-house near the eastern end of the gap the 
objective j)oint. 

Leaving Ashe vi lie in the cool morning hours, the 
drive across the upper gap and down the deep ravine 
amid its mountains to High Falls (21 miles) may 
easily be made by noon. 

Crossing the Swannanoa, 2 miles from Asheville, 
the road leads south-east toward the Blue Ridge. So 



40 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

gradual is tlie ascent on this side, that not until the 
western gap's sharp depression appears just at hand, 
do we realize that a mountain is being crossed. Half 
a mile from the top is the Sherrill House, sometimes 
used as a resting place. Here the mountains gather 
closely about the way, the stiletto-point of Cone Peak 
rising sharply in front, till, turning southward, we 
leave it behind, and directly before us, see the dip of 
the western notch, the entrance gate to the mighty 
gorge, finding exit in the grander gate-way 6 miles 
below. Still descending southward, each step leads 
'^ nearer to nature's heart." Lofty heights, clad to 
their sunnnits in varied evergreen and deciduous foli- 
age, rise to an altitude of many hundred feet on either 
side of the winding gorge, perhaps a fourth of a mile 
in width. Presently the impetuous waters of Hickory 
Creek double upon our path, and leaping in white 
haste over countless ledges, descend with us on the 
left until Broad Piver is reached, when the louder 
chant of this restless stream supplants the music of its 
tributary. The water scenery of Hickory-nut Gap 
is peculiarly beautiful. Innumerable infant rills slip 
by with a song to swell the symphony of creek and 
river, that for miles follow directly upon the road ; no 
silent passive travellers, but daring mountain elfs, 
possessed v/ith the very spirit of imrest ; now plung- 
ing in a series of cascades down their granite beds in 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 41 

" headlong leaps 
Of waters, that cry out for joy or fear, 
In leaping through the palpitating pines ; 
Like a white soul tossed out to eternity 
With thrills of time upon it :" 

now in the broader channel yards below, boiling their 
beryl waters (color borrowed from the greenery of the 
banks) into seething foam against the rngged bonlders 
intercepting their progress. 

Meanwhile various turns of the road reveal far 
beyond the clear profile cliff of Chimney E-ock Moun- 
tain, looking as if some thunderbolt from Jove's an- 
cient forge had cleft the mightiest in twain, and blast- 
ing away the debris^ had left this highway between 
the rent, scarred walls. Mellowy blue, the cliff hangs in 
mid-air, assuming at this distance the grotesque out- 
line of a human face ; a portion of the Chimney jut- 
ting out to form the peaked chin. As we draw 
nearer this caricature ceases, and the magnificent 
expanse and castellated surface of the mountain's 
rock-girt walls absorb the eye ; the granite escarp- 
ments ledging in precipitate masses above a forest - 
clad base, and surmounted higher up by a fret- work 
balustrade of the same noble growth. A gleaming 
strip of silvery-white paints a sudden flank of the 
wall. Is it silver or mica inlaying with its bright 
mosaic the rugged grayness ? But no, it moves ; if 



42 ILLUSTRATED GULDE BOOK OF 

silver, it is molten silver, and a nearer inspection 
sliows, far above, the High Falls, slipping from the 
topmost ledge down the sheer awful rocks. 

But whence does it come ? We see naught but the 
mountain side and the bending arch of the skj, and 
perhaps 2000 feet above where we gaze the venture- 
some sliding w^ater, swirling into snowy meshes of 
foam, at each slip of its mad journey, down the thou- 
sand or more feet of the unyielding rock. We only 
see the miracle of its glinting a]3parition, and its acro- 
batic leaps. We cannot from our lowly standpoint 
search out its spring-fed source on the broad plateau, 
stretching back unseen from the mountain's ledge. 
Crossing Broad Biver on a foot bridge, we may with 
a guide penetrate to its cool feet, if w^e dare a hearty 
climb along a round-about path. A nearer view of 
this giddy trapeze, veiled in tangled drapery of milk- 
wdiite foam, and a refreshing bath from its spray, 
amply repay the toils of the way. Yet more enter- 
prising spirits may mount to the top of the falls ; 
and, if they choose, follow the guide by a rambling 
path to The Pools in a neighboring glen ; but well- 
trained muscles and much energy are demanded for 
this. 

Leaving the falls and regaining the road, the next 
claimant on our gaze is the Chimney. 

At the southern extremity of the measureless cliff 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 43 

garrison we liave marvelled over so long, this curious 
pile rises abruptly from a platform of natural 
masonry. This platform, more than 150 feet high, 
shelves squarely up from the mountain side, perhaps 
800 or 1000 feet above the river, levels into a broad 
shelf, and at its southern edge the massive conical 
pillar of the Chimney cleaves the air through several 
hundred feet. It is the citadel or watch-tower of the 
fort, and the shrubbery growing in the crevices of its 
roof the woodland banners set waving in the breeze 
by some long- vanished dryad. 

Seen from the road we find it difficult to believe 
that the circumference of the granite mass is 300 feet, 
or that it rises to so great a height ; but we lose sight 
of figures iti marvelling how or whence it came, this 
huge, roundly moulded abutment of stone. Con- 
ducted by the enterprising guide to its base, we may 
marvel afresh over its magnitude, its isolation, and 
stern uprightness, or gaze delightedly off as the pros- 
pect southward opens up new fields of beauty, seem- 
ingly limitless in extent, unrivalled in charm. 

One perversely longs for a winding stairway up the 
Chimney's gray tower ; and we may yet find it — who 
can. tell ? It is certainly reasonable, and would be a 
great addition. 

The wonderful chimney guards the eastern gate. 
As we leave it behind, the gorge widens into a val- 



44 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

ley, still guarded by jealous heights. One and a half 
miles farther is the lodging-place, the public-house 
before mentioned, overlooked by the Pinnacle and 
the noisy Bald. Yet another mile hence westward, 
and we find in the wildest, most romantic glen ever 
haunted by nymph or naiad, the famous Pools. In 
the rock-lined trough of a swift-flowing creek, rush- 
ing through this ravine, hemmed straitly on either 
hand by ^precipitate hills, are these three natural wells 
or basins, hollowed smoothly and roundly out of the 
solid rock to a great depth. The first i^ool — perhaps 
fifty yards up the stream from the point where we 
enter the glen, is the smallest in circumference, but 
also the deepest and the most striking in the marvel- 
lous finish of its ringed walls. About ten feet across, 
giving a circumference of as many yards, the sides of 
this basin where they rise on the left 10 or 15 feet 
above the water level, are as smoothly polished as if 
chisel and hammer had done their most refining work, 
and when the water is low and clear the perfect out- 
line of the circle may be traced all round. Sounding 
to the extent of 200 feet failed to discover the nether 
depths of this mystic cavity. Some yards above are 
the two companion pools closely adjoining, the way- 
w^ard creek sej)arating all the reservoirs by a suc- 
cession of falls over the rocky ledges of its channel. 
The central pool is largest, measuring from 15 to 20 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 45 

feet across, but its outline is jagged and imperfect. 
This is reckoned 100 feet in depth, the one above 80 
feet. In each the swiftlj moving water has a 
strongly rotary motion, eddying round in mimic green 
waves, and breaking on the surface into crests of 
foam. Yarious theories have been urged as to their 
origin or formation, but nothing satisfactory has yet 
been offered. That these cavities have been bored and 
worn smooth by the attrition of the restless stream is 
the most frequent argument, but after observation 
this seems improbable. 

All the granite floor of Pool-creek is rent into 
seams and fissures ; and only a few miles away the 
torn, gaping Bald growls or rumbles at intervals. 
The whole region seems marked by the presence of 
an unknown force. 

But this appeals to us little now ; eye and ear are 
absorbed by the beauty of sights and sounds just 
about us. 

Seated upon the great stone ledge overlooking the 
lower pool, we abandon ourselves to a delirium of 
fancy : listen to the plainly-heard chorus of Long- 
fellow's Oreades : 

*' These are the voices three, 

Of wind, and forest, and fountain, 
Making together one sound — 

The mysterious voice of the mountain." 



46 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

The steep liills shelve up behind, before, rich with 
fringes of rhododendron, kalmia, and the golden 
cups of the azalea ; the wild, exquisite stream slips 
by at our feet ; and the mysterious pool swirls round 
in its Undine glimmer of green and white. The le- 
gend of the Indian lovers who found a common grave 
in its deej) waters is recounted anew, and lends a 
lacking significance to its impenetrable depths. 
Pursued by the Avarring pale-faces — so runs the story 
— and pressed through the forest they knew not 
whither, at a sudden juncture the panting fugitives 
found themselves U230n the brink of the cliff over- 
looking the pool ; w^ith the alternative of surrender, 
or death by a leap. " Locked in one another's arms, 
and silent in a last embrace," they chose the latter, 
and as the astonished pursuers followed close upon 
their track they found only the troubled, heaving 
water to tell their fate. Credulity onay revolt after 
leaving the haunted spot ; now it lends itself a will- 
ing victim to traditional suggestions or fancy's lightest 
wdiisper. Gazing into those darkly-green uncanny 
waters, a thousand mysteries seemed locked in their 
inviolate keeping. 

In returning to the house, the view from a meadow 
midway, up a purplish defile to Bear Wallow Moun- 
tain, fifteen miles away, is worth pausing to enjoy in 
detail. The high Sugar-loaf lies to the left, the Pin- 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 47 

nacle and Bald to the right ; and just at hand the 
knobby summit and perpendicular sides of Round- 
top Mountain ; and far up the gorge, in which floats 
the lovely mauve light, close on either hand the in- 
terminable ranks. Perhaps it will be more definite 
to state, that the lodging-house referred to was long 
known as Harris's Stand, and latterly as the Chim- 
ney-Rock House. 

Beyond the house on the right is the rumbling Bald. 
The curious in such matters will find interest in the 
long seam or fissure that rends the mountain from 
base almost to the summit, several feet in width, and 
of great depth. Near by, dark abrasures in the rock 
are windows of an extensive adjacent cave within the 
mountain ; but so dark and little explored are its re- 
cesses that few will care to venture. It has been sug- 
gested that the loud rumbling of the Bald originates 
in the fall and reverberation of heavy fragments of 
granite in this cave. The noises and jar, of whatever 
origin, have been heard or felt at a great distance, 
eighteen or twenty miles away. 

From Henderson ville, a drive of sixteen miles 
leads into Hickory Nut Gap, through Reedy-Patch 
Gap, entering above Broad River, and with all the 
finest scenery lying below the point of entrance. 

From Charlotte, N. C, via Ruth erf ordton, the Pass 
may be entered eighteen miles above the latter point. 



r 



i 







r^ «-:^=>?» 



CJESAR'S HEAD. 

• " Beauty — a living presence of the earth 

Pitches her tents before me as I move, 
An hourly neighbor." 

A BOLD headland, a noble summit, an outlying spur 
of the Blue Ridge — such are some of the descriptive 
epithets ap]3lied to that splendid eminence, Csesar's 
Head, forming the apex of a triangular curve of its 
range at the southern extremity of Transylvania ; 
the Head itself stretching across the South Carolina 
line, and sweeping with its illimitable outlook all the 
lowlands that vision can comprehend, in addition to 
the tangled maze of mountains, stretching from its 
right far in its rear, in long, irregular loops. 

Twenty-six miles north of Greenville, S. C, forty- 
five miles south of Asheville, sixteen miles soutli- 
east of Brevarc.^ ^iid twenty four miles south-west of 
Hendersonville, a variety of routes are open to the 
traveller. 

In making the trip from Asheville, so much of va- 
ried beauty may be embraced by the way that dis- 



52 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

tance only lends inducement ; via Brevard and Buck 
Forest suggests a ride of endless cliarm, and innu- 
merable temptations to linger. 

Brevard, the county-seat of Transylvania, distant 
twenty-eiglit miles, will be tlie tourist's first destina- 
tion. This little village, with its comfortable lodg- 
ings and attractive suroundings, might well detain 
him for days. 

The fame of its ' ' ripe green valley, ' ' that of the 
upper French Broad, has gone somewhat abroad ; 
and yet few know but vaguely of its beauty. Shut 
in by the rare blue hills, and tracked by the river and 
its countless tributaries, it is a collection of lovely, 
shifting views — a land of streams and falls ; as wit- 
ness Maiden Hair, Glen Cannon, Conestee, and Look- 
ing- Glass. 

The last, on Looking- Glass Mountain, are found 
up the lovely side valley of Davidson Kiver ; and 
this capricious stream avsses sixteen times upon the 
way in the course of the ten miles to be traversed in 
reaching the falls. 

The three other falls are on or in the immediate 
vicinity of the road to Buck Forest ; and can thus 
easily be visited en route. Maiden Hair, two and a 
half miles, Glen Cannon, four, and Conestee, the 
most striking and beautiful, seven. Between the last 
two is the favorite bluff Dunn's Kock, eight hundred 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 53 

feet above the plateau-level : tliis crag overlooks the 
fair valley, riven for twenty miles by the waters of 
French Broad, whose intricate broidery may be 
traced in silver threads throughout that length, with 
the ever-present boundary of mountains — the long 
range of the Balsam from north to south, the inter- 
vening familiar peaks of Pisgah, and far to the east 
the patriarchal Black. 

Yet two miles beyond, near the top of Mill's Hill, 
and the traveller again hears the roar of falling 
waters. 

Penetrating perhaps a hundred yards from the 
highway, he will find Conestee, flowing from south- 
east. Swift as the light the stream — a full mountain- 
creek — '' cleaves the wave-worn precipice " in a 
single leap of forty feet, then, " white as white sail 
on a dusky sea," fretting and chafing over its rocks, 
descends in broken leaps more than a hundred feet 
below, when a second stream, flowing from the south- 
west, forms junction in a narrow gorge scarcely more 
than a yard across, and together they plunge onward in 
a frenzy of speed several hundred feet lower ; with a 
declination of forty-five or fifty degrees. A small 
tub-mill, projecting over the uj)per fall, will be voted 
a nuisance by many ; but some appreciative sj^irit has 
even declared this a picturesque addition. 

Midway between Brevard and Caesar's Head is the 



54 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

sportsman's Buck Forest, surrounding the Cedar 
Mountain, or Buck Forest Hotel. 

Visions of " iinnj, furry, feathery fun" — pleas- 
ing alliteration ! — rise rifely before the masculine 
vision at the name. The branching antlers on the 
walls of the hotel, and (if one chance on a lucky day), 
the juicy venison steaks or cover of pheasants on the 
table cVhote, lend a delightful confirmation ; and a 
chase with driver and pack in the forest's coverts, or 
a lono^ mornino^ with rod and reel in the '' holes " of 
Little Kiver, " give to these airy nothings a local 
habitation." One and a half miles in the rear of the 
hotel, across the brown, rugged Cedar Mountain, in 
a narrow defile between the hills, Little River fiows, 
seeking the French Broad. In its course for five 
miles the river breaks in three of the loveliest falls of 
all this lovely region — Bridal Yail, and the Trij^le, 
and Great Falls. None are of very great height, the 
last two being perhaps ninety or one hundred feet in 
broken leaps ; but the volume of the stream, its tu- 
multuous haste, the rocky, uneven channel, the shad- 
owy foliage on either bank, with 

" Light on many a shivered lance 
Breaking about the da]Dpled pools," 

combine in unison to a charming result. 

Whittredge's '' Trout Brook," with its virgin seclu- 
sion, its aisles of shade, and sin.q:Je golden reach of 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 55 

light trembling" across crystal wave, lies vitalized before 
you at calmer passes of tlie stream. In tlie dark linn 
at tlie foot of Great Falls, a line of fifty or sixt}'' feet 
may be cast, and the speckled beauties rise gaily to 
the fly, or more readily, perhaps — perverted taste ! — 
to the bug or worm. A better idea of the immense 
rocks of the river's basin may be formed by walking 
behind the flowing sheet of Bridal Yail. The mas- 
sive ledge holding out the Yail j)rojects in a broad 
shelf from its granite bed, and under this shelf, with 
the deafening water as an outer wall, we may cross 
to the opposite bank. The rocky way under foot is 
damp with filtering water, slimy with moss, and in- 
terrupted by small j^ools ; but fortified with stout boots 
and water-proof, the discomfort is trifling, the slight 
stimulus of adventure agreeable, and the view from 
the opposite bank the reward. 

But the ultima ihule of the trip — the grand old 
Head and its wonderful environment — lies beyond. 
Five miles from Buck Forest, leaving the main road, 
the way curves to the right up a mountain's side. A 
signboard marked Ccesar^s Head indicates direction. 
So gradual is the ascent, and so shaded the way, that 
the first glimmering sight over tall tree-tops of the . 
neighboring peaks, with only a suggestion of the in- 
finity of space widening beyond, dawns with the 
charm of surprise. 



56 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

Still ascending in easy slopes, almost as elevated it 
seems as those misty towers on the right, a final climb 
gains a comparative level, where, driving w^estward 
a short distance, the vehicles are abandoned, and a 
few^ steps conduct the traveller to the cliff. It is not 
so nmch the altitude of this wonderful Head — though 
that is considerable, forty-five hundred feet — as its 
peculiar outlying j^rominence that commands for it 
such a marvellous outlook. Jutting out from its 
range in this ledge the rock suddenly breaks off into 
a sheer, vertical edge, falling hundreds and hun- 
dreds of feet below (three thousand, it is claimed) to 
the plains of South Carolina. If only vision would 
hold out, the entire State would unroll as a map with 
a boundary-line of the far Atlantic. Southward no 
range or peak interferes with the compassless sweep 
of sight ; only hill or plain in endless succession, 
under the vibrating light, till the misty curtain of 
distance shuts off the view. 

Directly beneath stretches a dense wood, the Dis- 
mal Forest, which extends irregularly north-west to 
meet the neighboring mountains. " Dreamily blue 
as the iris in May-time," glow the distant heights, 
" permitting to us only the outline of their maj- 
esty ;" green with forest, or seamed with granite, 
rise those near to hand. The broad, bare sides of a 
second Table-rock face prominently on the right, and 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 57 

a faint murmur, '' like a sighing in a dream," echoes 
across from Sahida Gorge, where the South Fork 
makes its L^ng descent. 

'' I should like to be brought to Caesar's Head to 
die !" exclaimed an enthusiastic beholder (feminine, 
it is needless to add), and perhaps this heartfelt senti- 
ment may suggest to the uninitiated something of 
the exaltation this place inspires. Beauty without 
dross or blemish lies around ; earth and its heavy 
cares drop from us like a garment ; heaven bends en- 
couragingly near, and eternity seems symbolized in 
the endless space or the spherical roll of sparkling 
ether. 

The comfortable, excellently conducted hotel is 
built on a lower crest of the mountain, only a quarter 
of a mile from the Head. The decline is inconsider- 
able, and thus the visitor may come and go at will, 
enjoying the prospect under every phase of light. 

It is superfluous to suggest that the sunset view is 
incomparable. Through the media of this aerial at- 
mosphere, the broad plain and distant mountains bor- 
row tints from the sunset glory, of tropical richness 
and kaleidoscopic variety. The prospect, too, at that 
severer hour when '' jocund day stands tiptoe on the 
misty mountain-top," how richly it repays the sacri- 
fice of early rising ! And the vitality of the air, the 
translucent atmosphere ! Liken it, as we may, to a 



58 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

stimulant, a tonic, or an elixir, no synonym conveys 
the sense of its exhilarating purity, its rare bracing 
freshness and glow. Its perfect immunity from hay- 
fever will commend it to all sufferers from that fash- 
ionable ill, or its allies, rose-cold, etc.; and for the 
weak throat or chest, the overworked brain, or wear- 
ied nerves, it is a healing balm. Throughout the 
season a succession of visitors come and go, many 
remaining for weeks ; and the secret of its j)opularity 
is easily comprehended. Days may be spent in ex- 
ploring adjacent haunts of beauty. Tempting little 
paths descend on either side of the Head, amid a 
lovely confusion of rocks and trees. One of these, 
on the left, conducts to the great cleft in the face of 
the cliff know^n as Csesar's Mouth. 

1^0 satisfactory origin of the name can be traced. 
The christeners must have held liberal ideas of great 
CoBsar, thus to magnify his proportions in this grim 
^^gj of stone. 

Lured by the low monotone of the stream echoing 
from a ravine on the right, and faintly heard, as we 
liave said, on the Head, the listener will search out 
its hidden retreat. Several miles in a north-west 
direction, dow^n a shaded pass of the same name, the 
Saluda Falls make their dizzy journey from the 
upper world. At no one point are more than eight 
hundred or a thousand feet of the descent visible, 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 59 

tlioiigli it is claimed that the total fall is double this. 
High above the gazer, through Gothic arches of 
shade, or gleams of amber light, the torrent appears, 
leaping from ledge to ledge in fearless tumult, 
fringing its glass-gray waves into clouds of foam or 
spray, and fluttering its long "Vail"' one hundred 
and fifty feet. It is the freshness, the daring, the 
joyous confidence of youth that s]3eaks in this moun- 
tain stream. " In haste to exercise its untried fac- 
ulties, " it is seeking its world — the briny Atlantic — 
and in thought we follow where 

*' The brooklet has found the billow, 
Though they flowed so far apart ; 
And has mingled its sweetness and freshness 
With that turbulent bitter heart." 

It is carrying a message from yonder self-con- 
tained, rock embedded pine, to some fronded palm, 
on tropic reef, whose passionate response will waft 
back on that winged Ariel, the wind. 

Heine's palm and pine have countless prototypes. 

The thermometer at Caesar's Head ranges during 
the summer months from 50° to 70° ; average 60° ; 
temperature of water from 52° to 54°. A recently 
discovered mineral spring of red sulphate of iron 
promises to attract attention. 



HAYWOOD WHITE-SULPHUR 
SPRINGS. 

" Pleasuee, and healing, in this wild sweet land, 
Beauty for soul, and balm for wearied frame go hand in hand." 

Nature is a wise physician — calling beauty to the 
aid of her healing art, she locates her occult labora- 
tories amid scenes of loveliness, that the spirit en- 
grossed by its fair surroundings may leave the tired 
body leisure to profit by her skill, or by force of its 
own exhilaration may assist in the process. 

No more striking example of this need be instanced 
than the Haywood White Sulphur Springs — in the 
midst of the Great Balsam Mountains. Under the 
shelter of cool hills, and guarded by titan peaks, this 
perpetual curative fountain bubbles up in a lovely 
highland valley at an elevation of two thousand seven 
hundred and seventeen feet — its medicinal j)owers 
strongly developed and attested, and assisted by the 
tonic of a 23ure atmosphere and the native beauty of 
its environment. Thirty-eight miles south of the 
Warm Springs, and thirty-two west of Asheville, a 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 61 

day's ride from either place, readies the Springs. 
The range of Pisgah that, from its height, rich color- 
ing, and peculiar marked outline, has grown familiar 
to the sojourner at Asheville, apparently intervenes 
midway ; but so sharply does its line dent in a syncli- 
nal gap, fifteen miles from town, that no climbing is 
needed, beyond the ordinary succession of hills, inci- 
dent to this rolling country. In following the ser- 
rated outline of Pisgah from some Asheville hill, the 
observer will notice on the right, this western gap ; 
and the appearance of the highest point on its left 
will serve as a landmark throughout the journey to 
the Springs. Here in the midst of the heavy growth 
a clearing on the summit shows distinctly from a 
long distance, like a bald spot on a curly pate. Di- 
rectly at the foot of this shorn summit is the excel- 
lent wayside house, Yalley Farm, where the traveller 
may always reckon upon that desideratum, a v^ell- 
cooked meal neatly served. This is the usual dinner- 
house, or midway resting place ; and with its abundant 
orchard and stock-yard, Yalley Farm typifies the 
rural plenty that the sharpened appetite fully appre- 
ciates. Beyond this gap the road enters a new am- 
phitheatre of hills, the western stragglers from 
Pisgah and the Newfound, and beyond the distant 
line of the Balsam. To this blue, broken line, 
which diminishes in color and increases in magni- 



62 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

tude, we draw nearer and nearer, until reacliing the 
Springs, one mile west of Waynesville, the county- 
seat, it looms closely at hand, only five miles dis- 
tant, and with its hills rambling down in all direc- 
tions. The immediate surroundings of the Springs 
are most attractive. The two main buildings, and 
small cottages rise from a lawn of several acres' ex- 
tent, green with turf, and shaded by a heavy growth 
of oaks — a level bit of forest. Small bridges span a 
rill tliat trickles across the fresh, smooth sward, and 
just outside the front boundary flows a crystal- 
clear, swift mountain stream — Richland Creek. Sharp 
hills heave up in the rear ; the extensive sweep of 
Westner Bald darkens the north, and the long slants, 
or brent points, of his brother peaks of the Balsam 
crowd along the eastern limit, to etch in blue lines or 
cut clean silhouettes against the lighter sky. 

The kiosk'^, or arbor, on the needle-like hill, three 
hundred feet high, directly north-west of the hotel, 
commands a charming prospect of the gromids, the 
narrow Richland Yalley, scalloped throughout its 
green length by its lovely creek, and about all the 
never-ending hills and mountains. 

Through a break south-east we catch a glimpse of 
Pisgah's blue skirts ; and facing us from out heavy 
ranks tower the Caney-Fork Bald, the Lone Balsam, 

* Known as Love's View. 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS, 63 

Plott's Balsam, Westner Bald, and numerous com- 
panion heights — twelve of them, it is said, more than 
six thousand feet high. The view from the Caney 
Bald, ten miles distant, is declared superb in extent ; 
carrying the eye into the unfamiliar mazes of the 
Cowee and Nantehaleh ranges, south. A day from 
the Springs, giving a long noon rest on the summit, 
suffices for the trip. Plott's Balsam (six thousand 
four hundred and twenty-five feet), but five miles, 
may be visited in an afternoon on horseback ; as also. 
Old Field (six thousand one hundred feet), only three 
miles. 

Piscator will find scope for his craft in the deeps 
of Pigeon River, seven miles, or the upper waters of 
Pichland ; but only in that abundance satisfying to 
the angler's heart in musical Catalooche,'^ distant 
twenty miles. This score of distance will seem tri- 
fling, how^ever, if he be a true disciple of his art, 
after desire is whetted by recitals of what awaits him 
in that famous river. Game, too, deer, and occa- 
sional bears, are found in the wilder coverts of the 
mountains ; and nearer, the small targets of ' ' flesh or 
fowL" 

The Springs have only recently been opened to the 
public, the present being the third season. Their 
charming obscurity invaded, the throng of visitors 
* Catalooche is a noted trout-stream. 



64 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

will doubtless annually increase. Almost one thou- 
sand feet higher than the well-known Greenbrier 
White Sulphur, the combined tonic of the bracing 
air and delightful waters of this place must win for 
it fame and well- placed recognition among the health 
resorts of the country. The Sulphur Spring, a few 
yards from the hotel, is neatly basined and sheltered ; 
it has an average temperature of 52°. Strong chaly- 
beate springs in the vicinity. It should be added 
that, as last year the crowd at one time exceeded ac- 
commodations, a large addition to the hotel is com- 
pleted for the present season, and the hotel, under dif- 
ferent management, will be open during the entire 
year. 

Waynesville, the nearest village, is scarcely a mile 
east. A small enterprising hamlet, here may be 
found stores, post-office, and several comfortable 
churches. Waynesville is the seat of one of the rich- 
est agricultural counties of the West. The traveller 
to the Springs though Haywood's fertile farming- 
lands, along the pretty valley of the Pigeon River, 
will be struck with the prevalent air of thrift, plenty, 
and prosperity. 



CLOUDLAND— ROAN MOUNTAIN. 

'' The changes of light from the warming amber of morning to 
the transcendent strength of noon, and from the mild ardor of 
four o'clock to the fever of sunset, wrought transformation in 
color, and sometimes in form, with such variety that Nature herself 
seemed transformed into a teller of stories, more poetic and fer- 
tile than the dark author of the Arabian Nights." 

Cloudland Hotel suggests an airy perch, but in this 
instance, being one of the two highest human habita- 
tions east of the Rockies, the ambitious nomenclature 
seems pardonable. 

The Roan, the southern Mount Washington, is a 
mighty uplift from a spur of the Unakas, a section of 
the Great Smoky range. The mountain rises in its 
High Knob (six thousand three hundred and ninety- 
one feet), more than a hundred feet higher than its 
famous kinsman of the White Mountains. Its hotel, 
however, slightly removed (six thousand two hun- 
dred and fifty feet), is perhaps thirty-five feet lower 
than the well-known Summit House (six thousand 
two hundred and eighty-five feet). Rising from the 
northern boundary of Mitchell County, the Roan is 



06 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

distant tliirtj-two miles from Johnson City on the 
East Tennessee, Yirginia, and Georgia Raih'oad ; 
forty-five miles from Marion on the Western North 
Carolina Kailroad, and about sixty miles slightly 
north-east from Asheville. 

Several hundred feet lower than its victor rival the 
Dome, this '' kingly spirit throned among the hills " 
atones for this discrepancy of height by several 
striking advantages : the greater extent of its sum- 
mit, its more varied prospect, and the richness of its 
grasses, foliage, and flowers. The top of the Roan 
is the laracest and richest of the numerous '' balds" of 
these mountains ; a vast, mid-air j^rairie, of several 
miles extent ; a wonderful hanging garden, verdant 
w^itli grass, and gay with rhododendron, azalea, and 
blossoming heather. This exquisite carpet slopes 
down to meet heavy green walls of hemlock and bal- 
sam, bedded in lush rank cushions of mountain 
moss. 

And the sumptuous circuit of vision ! how define 
it? The titan upheavals of the Great Smoky, or 
TJnaka, tower closely on the north ; the farther bul- 
w^arks of the Blue Ridge darken the south and east ; 
and the network of cross-chains wdth spurs and off- 
shoots from all, and their highland valleys, roll be- 
tween ; w^hile illimitable glimmerings of far, faint 
lowlands tax the sight. Peering into seven States ; 



NORTH CAROLINA ^lOUNTAlNS, 67 

counting ranges and familiar blue peaks till tlie pro- 
cess palls ; overlooking the birthplace of the lightning ; 
watching the magnificent '' army with banners" — 
the clouds — '^ ebb audibly along the wind ;" or the 
ocean expanse of mist break in white surges against 
the mountains, to disclose a hundred island peaks ! 
Apply the language of grim, eloquent Teufelsdrockh 
to some war of the elements viewed from the Roan, 
where the observer stands bathed in sunlight : 

'' Often also could I see the Black Tempest march- 
ing through the distance ; round some Schreckhorn as 
yet grim blue would the eddying vapor gather, and 
then tumultuously eddy and flow down like a mad 
witch's hair ; till after a space it vanished, and in the 
clear sunbeam your Schreckhorn stood smiling !" 

What need has this Bhigi of lakes when the chang- 
ing billows of vapor roll and gleam about its slopes ? 

One mile west from the hotel rises a solemn gray 
pile, a sturdy citadel of rock, the High Bluff. Its 
edge breaking sharply off, the bluff descends a thou- 
sand feet to a darkly wooded gorge, whose intricate 
primeval gloom is rarely invaded by human foot- 
falls. 

Eagle Cliff (beyond), and Raven's Rest (on the 
left), are pretty, fanciful sobriquets for smaller 
bluffs. Half a mile east from the hotel runs up the 
High Knob ; and midway between glitters the shin- 



68 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

iiig granite sides of Coton's Cliff, four Inindred feet 
high. 

Jnst at hand, but a few yards from the liouse, seated 
npon the favorite Sunset Hock, •the visitor will watch 
the " dolphin-like death of the day :" dusky shadows 
gathering darkly in the valleys, and falling athwart 
the nearer heights, w^hile the reluctant radiance still 
lingers on the distant violet line as — • 

*' Through each pass, and hollow, streams 
The purpling light of heaven; 
Eivers of gold mist, flowing down 
From far celestial fountains !" 

It seems needless to tell of the rarity and purity of 
the atmosphere ; the invigorating chill of its mornings 
and evenings ! The mercury ranges from 50° to 70°. 
The clear free-stone springs have a temperature of 
only 45°. Here, too, is experienced perfect relief 
from hay- fever and its attendant evils. In truth it 
seems as if before this clear, sparkling, limpid atmos- 
phere all taint of ills must vanish ; the elusive source 
of perpetual youth and health must somewhere be 
locked amid these rocks. 

Existence becomes a new boon ; it is happiness only 
to lie stretched at indolent length on some of the many 
cliffs, glancing now and then through blissful lids at 
the ever-ready picture, stretching endlessly away. 



NORTH CAROLINA 3I0UNTAINS. 69 

For tlie enterprising, expeditions are abundantly sug- 
gested. We may only speak now of the Mica Mines 
beyond Bakers ville, the nearest village (seven miles). 
A visit to these mine* will be much enjoyed by many. 
The industry is one of which little is known, and these 
mines, extensively worked by Northern owners, are- 
among the largest in the mountains. Interesting an- 
cient excavations formica (traced three centuries back 
by timbers, etc. , in the heaps of dSris thrown out) 
will be found near the high road between Bakersville 
and Burnsville. These excavations — deeply and sys- 
tematically extended — are ascribed to the wandering 
Indians, as in many of the tombs of the Mound-build- 
ers mica ornam.ents, of various devices, have been 
found ; and on the flinty boulders cast out of the dig- 
gings have been traced the marks of copper tools, 
which it is ascertained these Indians possessed and 
used. 

Of the several routes suggested as reaching the 
Hoan, only the Tennessee road has regular daily 
stages. At Marion on the Western North Carolina 
Railroad, vehicles may be obtained and the ride via 
the Linville Falls, is one of unusual interest. The 
Linville River cuts between Linville Mountains and 
the Jonas ridge, in a gorge of several miles extent, 
lined on either hand by bare granite cliffs a thousand 
feet in height, and finally breaks into the grandest 



YO ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

falls — volume of water and lieiglit relatively con- 
sidered — of all the mountain region. These falls are 
fifteen miles south-east of the Roan. 

At Asheville most comfortable vehicles and experi- 
encdd drivers may be had — the first day's destination 
being Bakersville, a village midway. 

Note. — "Hundreds of pounds of mountain trout 
are annually served on the Cloudland table." This 
would seem to promise abundant sport to the angler, 
but it is reported that these shy beauties are not very 
amenable to hook and line. Fly-fishing is common 
here, however, and doubtless the dexterous fisherman 
may make it a success. 



WARM SPRINGS. 

" In fine vicissitude beauty alternates with grandeur ; you ride 
through stony hollows, along strait passes, traversed by torrents, 
overhung by high walls of rock ; now winding amid broken 
shaggy chasms and huge fragments ; now suddenly emerging into 
an emerald valley, where man has found a fair dwelling, and it 
seems as if Peace had established herself in the bosom of 
Strength." ^ 

So frequently lias tlie wayward '^ racing river, "''^ the 
French Broad, haunted the traveller's steps in these 
pages — skirting Asheville's hills, openly appropriat- 
ing, under an annual battery of gazers, the subservient 
Swannanoa, or seeking countless tributaries in its fair 
Transylvania valley, that, as it follows ceaselessly 
upon his steps for thirty-six miles as he journeys to- 
ward the Warm Sj)rings, it seems the genius Loci of 
the region. 

Hitherto he has only observed its restful moods, 

as in its character of pastoral nymph it has rolled in 

cool lakes about the bases of the hills, or trailed its 

dexterous gray scarf about the valley's velvet skirts ; 

* Ta/ifceeos/ee— Racing Eiver in the Cherokee tongue. 



Y4 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

but from this boisterous pursuer upon bis way west- 
ward tbe placid fairness bas fled ; supplanted by a 
basso-voiced aggressive fascination : it is now a haz- 
ardous aspirant after fame, forcing its way to the 
outer world by sheer strength of stormy opposition. 

Upon its right bank lies the highway and coach- 
road ; upon the opposite side winds the proposed line 
of rail, to be finished ten miles down the river, as far 
as that celebrated wayside house, Alexanders', in the 
early summer of the present year. 

We say celebrated wayside house ; not that the sight 
of this gray old hotel, behind its clustering cedars, 
is in the least imposing ; but its inviting homeliness 
and cleanliness, its antiquated air of comfort and 
good cheer — which its abundant table, profuse of milk 
and honey and all the nameless accompaniments 
fully verifies — these have endeared '' this ancient 
stand of long renown ' ' to many an idler seeking rest 
and health. 

The long, oblique hills (climbed for the view by 
energetic visitors) form the background, the green 
w^ater swirls in front, and beyond again the tireless 
hills " climb the sky." This, too, is a favorite re- 
sort for parties from Asheville, either for the day or 
several days. 

Beyond Alexander s the road, like a hardy ad- 
venturer, tracks sturdily along between the roaring, 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 75 

white-capped, tumultuous water and great vertical 
cliffs. These cliffs, hundreds of feet in height, scar- 
red bj time and his warrior elements, beetle massive- 
ly overhead, or recede in slanting stairways for the 
flitting white feet of brook or rill. Feathery beds of 
fern and the constant wild rosebay (rhododendron), 
droop from the clefts, or bed richly in the hollows 
between. Of the former, wrote a gifted rambler 
among these rocks some years ago,* " Although a 
beginner, with unskilled eyes, I collected along the 
French Broad twelv^e different kinds — the polypody, • 
the maiden-hair, the bracken, Cheilanthes, the cliff- 
brake, the dainty little ebony Asplenium, the lady- 
fern, the Filix-mas, the beech -fern, the Cystopteris, 
the martial PolysticJmm acrostichoids, and the 
Mystery, so called because it positively refused to show 
me any seeds, so that I could not analyze it." 

Four miles above the Springs, Laurel Creek floods 
across the road, rushing with marked velocity into 
the lap of the Broad. The Walnut Mountains stand 
densely behind, and further on the cliffs and rushing 
torrent grow yet wilder in their moods. Mountain 
Island, rising in mid-stream fifty or sixty feet, and 
cleaving the water into twin currents about its rough 
sides, or the rocky promontories known as Peter's 
Rock and Lover's Leaj^, a short distance from the ho- 

* Constance F. Woolson. 



76 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

tel on the right, attract the eye by their sahent promi- 
nence. 

Entering a deep narrow valley, the buildings of the 
Springs come in sight, on the left bank of the river. 
A long bridge leads across, a green shaded lawn 
sweeps in front, the handsome, spacious hotel rises 
imposingly near, with cottages and bath houses dot- 
ting thickly around. For years this place has been a 
popular rendezvous for the people of the Gulf States ; 
but as, each year its accommodations are enlarged the 
visiting crowd seems ever on the gain. The Warm 
Springs are literally warm pools rising to the surface 
near the river — the scale of heat from 102° to 104° 
Fahr. Comfortable bath-rooms inclose the basins, 
which make delightful tepid baths, deep enough to 
support swimmers. 

Marvellous cures of rheumatism, paralysis, and 
similar muscular or nervous ailments are recounted of 
the baths. Nine hundred feet lower than Asheville, 
the place has an altitude of one thousand three hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet, with a wonderfully dry, 
healthful atmosphere ; the entire absence of fogs in 
the valley indicating this in a marked manner. Thus 
the soothing ana?sthetic effects of the w^arm baths — 
excellent for a multitude of ills to which flesh is heir 
— are not counteracted by low malarial air, as at the 
Arkansas Springs, or the dampness of the Yirginia re- 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 77 

sorts. In addition to the invalids, a gay crowd of 
pleasure -seekers annually throng the hotel. Its beau- 
tiful surroundings of mountains, river, and creek ; its 
baths and mineral waters — sulphur and chalybeate — 
and its ever-improving facilities for accommodation, 
are magnets that serve their end, and draw that look- 
ed-for majority at favorite watering-places — a crowd. 
Recent large additions have been made to the hotel ; 
accommodation for one thousand guests, it is said, is 
provided, with handsome improvement of the bath- 
ing facilities in both hot and cold baths. 

Four miles west of the Springs is the State line 
bounding Tennessee, and yet three miles beyond the 
more striking landmark, the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains. Here, overlooking the French Broad and the 
interminable heights, is Paint Rock, one hundred 
and fifty feet high, a curiously-colored cliff, its red- 
dish hues ascribed to the rude pigments of the In- 
dians. About the Springs in all directions delightful 
expeditions abound — Rich Mountain, Deer Park, 
The Chimneys, etc. ; or nearer, the much-frequented 
Lover's Leap, only three-fourths of a mile away. 
From its rocky elevation a charming prospect un- 
folds. 

Of course one hears the old story of the maddened 
lovers. Since Sappho's Leucadian leap, or that of 
Spanish Laila from the steeps of Guadalhorce, each 



78 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK. 

spot owning a high promontory of rock must stereo- 
type the threadbare story, with fanciful revisions. 

On this bare old rock, eighty-live feet high — per- 
pendicular measurement — only stout faith is needed 
to grow retrospectively pensive over the ancient trag- 
edy. (?) 



GENERAL TOPOGliAPHY; WITH SUG- 
GESTIONS TO THE SPORTSMAN. 

Perhaps a brief summary for tlie general reader, of 
the peculiar topogra23hy of this region, Western 
North Carolina, followed by a few leading hints to 
the sportsman, should here be added. 

The general form of this great plateau (extending 
from Southern Virginia to Northern Georgia, and 
South Carolina) ''is that of a long narrow loop, or a 
much flattened and somew^hat distorted ellipse, the 
southern half having twice the breadth of the north- 
ern. The narrowest part of the plateau, about the 
Grandfather Mountain, is also the highest, having an 
altitude of 3500 to 4000 feet, while the average for 
the whole does not exceed 2600. The general direc- 
tion of the axis of the plateau is about E.N.E. Two- 
thirds of its extent, or about 5000 square miles, lie 
within the State territory."* 

''Through an extent of more than one hundred 
and fifty miles, the mean height of the valleys from 

* Kerr. 



80 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

wliicli the mountains rise is 2000 feet ; the mountains 
Avjiicli reach 6000 are counted by scores, and the loft- 
iest peaks rise to 6700 feet ; while in the White 
Mountains the base is scarcely 1000 feet, the gaps 
2000, and Mount Washington, the only one which 
rises above 6000, is still 400 feet below the height of 
the Black Dome, of the Black Mountains." 

The area comprised between the two main chains 
— Blue Ridge and Great Smoky — is divided by trans- 
verse chains into many basins, at the bottom of each 
one of which runs one of those mountain tributaries 
to the Tennessee, which by the abundance of their 
waters merit the name of the true sources of that 
noble stream. Betw^een the basin of the Watanga 
and the Kolechucky, rises the lofty chain of the Roan 
and Yellow Mountains. Tlie north-west branch of 
the Black Mountain, and its continuation to the Bald 
Moimtain, separate the basin of the Nolechucky from 
that of the French Broad: Between the latter and 
the Big Pigeon River stretches the long chain of the 
Pisgah and I^^ewfound Mountains. 

'' Further to the west the elevated chain of the Great 
Balsam Mountains separates the basins of Big Pigeon 
and Tuckasegee ; next comes the chain of the Cowee, 
(or Cullowhee) Mountains between the latter river 
and the Little Tennessee. 

'^ Finally the double chain of the Nantehaleh and 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 81 

Yalley Eiver Mountains separates the two great basins 
of the Little Tennessee and the Pliwassee. 

*'The height of these transverse chains is greater 
than that of the Blue liidge, for thej are from 5000 
to 6000 feet and upward."^ 

'' The western boundary chain, the Smoky, is 
broadly contrasted with the Blue Ridge, in its greater 
regularity, both in direction and elevation, its greater 
elevation, and especially in the excessive depth of its 
gaps, which, from the peculiar structure of the 
plateau" {i.e., the northwest descent of the terrace 
forming the base of the chains, the base of the inte- 
rior chain (Smoky) being thus depressed to a lower 
level, though the chain itself has an absolute eleva- 
tion greater than that of the Blue Ridge) " become 
enormous water-gaps or chasms of 3000 and 4000 feet 
depth, through which the drainage of the plateau 
escapes, "f 

Thus the observer will bear in mind that the east- 
ern boundary. Blue Ridge, is the great line of demar- 
cation dividing the waters flowing into the Atlantic 
from the tributaries of the Mississippi. On any map 
of the State he may trace the northerly, western, or 
north-western direction of the considerable streams 
before enumerated ; streams that, from their devious 
windings, their marvellously-clear mountain " feed- 
* Guyot. f Kerr and Giiyot. 



82 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

ers," their volume and impetuosity, and their mag- 
nificent escape through colossal gaps of granite in the 
Great Smoky, lend an inconceivable charm to this 
wonderful region. 

In direct opposition, note the direction of the 
streams heading on the east slope of the Blue Ridge, 
flowing east or south, as the Yadkin, Catawba, Broad 
River, the Linville, Green, Toxaway, etc. 

Going back among the mountains, it may be assert- 
ed of a small number of these heights, that their Avild 
seclusion is unbroken ; their forests untouched by axe 
or wedge, their streams unmolested, their thickets 
trackless ; but by far the greater number are trav- 
ersed, at least, by beaten trails, while a large propor- 
tion are crossed and recrossed by highways connecting 
the numerous townships, or extending to the several 
lines of rail that have at last clambered over and 
among the network of ranges. 

Enterprising villages and hamlets cluster thickly 
among the verdant valleys ; and willing efficient 
guides may always be obtained to conduct the tourist 
or sportsman to " freshest fields" of observation or 
slaughter. In the previous chapters limited notices 
of fishing or game grounds have been appended to 
certain places, but we may now briefly add to and 
amplify the list. 

Bears may be found at various localities, notably 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 83 

portions of tlie Black Mountains, and of the Balsam, 
Smoky, ^N'antehaleh, and Cowee ranges. An uplift 
of the Blue Ridge, the famous White-side Mountain 
(whose shining white cliffs, two miles in extent, rise 
to a wonderful height, and originate its title) is said 
to be a favorite rendezvous for this formidable game. * 
The mountaineers will beguile the wanderer with 
blood curdling recitals of their encounters with these 
four-footed opponents on some precipitate ledge, or 
some solitary, hemmed-in trail. 

Fortunately for the nerves of the listener, '^ brute 
force" always yields to the 'Miigher intelligence." 
Bruin invariably tumbles over the ledge, or falls a 
victim to a miraculously skilful shot. Ego, primi- 
tive or naive, as becomes a mountain dweller, is ego 
still, and remains a victor on every field. 

As is generally known, the autumn months are most 
favorable to bear-hunts ; the dense forest thickets, 
somewhat divested of foliage, are more readily 
tramped or " sighted" through ; and the bears them- 
selves in fine condition. Deer, too, despite the 
absence of game-laws, are found at a variety of points. 

As a rule the closely- wooded foot-hills about the 
various ranges are more favorable to the caj^ture of 
these shy aristocrats of the covert than the principal 
mountains themselves. The following localities enjoy 

* Jackson County, Southern part. 



81 ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

a fair reputation for deer : the Pinkbeds of Pisgali, 
and all the adjacent hills of its range ; portions of 
the Black Mountain, and along the south-east slopes 
of the Smoky range, in Swain and Graham Counties ; 
or east in Jackson and Macon, among the Cowee and 
Nantehaleh heights. Buck Forest, Transylvania 
County, has already been mentioned. The Dismal 
Forest across the South Carolina line from Caesar's 
Head, and the region about the "Warm Springs, are 
hunted for deer, but not always with success. Nume- 
rous other points might be added as we penetrate far- 
ther north into Ashe or Watauga Counties, or on the 
east slopes of the Ridge, but these suggested must 
now sufiice. 

A^aried, and oftentimes delightfully abundant, are 
the feathered targets ; ducks, mallard and teal, tur- 
keys and pigeons, and rich coveys of brown-coated 
(juails, or dappled pheasants, (pennated grouse). 

And the fishing ! The classic art of angling, '' the 
refinement of cruelty," has too many and too ardent 
followers, has too long been the resource alike of the 
philosopher, the divine, the poet, the "sport," and 
the veriest vagabond of the earth, to be omitted. 
The thousand and one forms of the art allow to the 
fisherman a wide latitude of enjoyment. 

When Mistress Juliana Berners in her ancient 
" Art of Fysshynge" kindly suggests that it is folly 



NORTn CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 85 

to try and ^' tak a fyslie wytliout an lioke and bayte," 
or that " brown bnggs, redd wurms, and hornettes 
mak good bayte," tlie modern stndent of ^' Fly- 
Fisliers' Entomology," gloating over his gay array of 
"bayte" — "govenors," "alders," and what not — 
must drop a tear for the benighted dame. 

Successful anglers wisely insist that nature best in- 
dicates the bait for any given waters ; the nearest ap- 
proach that one can make from his fly-list to the 
insects hovering about the selected stream, wdll most 
cleverly attract and deceive. 

As brook trout haunt only cold clear streams, hence 
their abundance in many of these mountain rivers and 
creeks. Certain streams claim pre-eminence for fine 
and abundant trout — as Toxaway Eiver, and Indian 
Creek, southern pai*t of Transylvania County ; Hazel 
and Eagle Creeks, Swain County ; Tuckasegee Eiver, 
Jackson County ; Nantehaleh Eiver, and the Little 
Snowbird, tributaries through Macon County to the 
Tennessee. Eagle and Hazel Creeks are reported 
peculiarly good trout waters. 

In a most primitive region of the mountains, amid 
the JbOuth-east spurs of Great Smoky, they have been 
little exhausted by the indiscriminate fishing that has 
somewhat taxed other noted localities. From Ashe- 
viPv* a two-and-a-half or three days' journey reaches 
V'h section, abounding too in game. 



SQ ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK OF 

From White Sulphur Springs (Haywood), it is 
reached more quickly. 

Allusion has been made to Catalooche, north-west 
border of Haywood County. 

The headwaters of the French Broad near Glouces- 
ter township, about sixteen miles from the village of 
Brevard, must be added. Also the headwaters of the 
Sw^annanoa, about Black Mountain, and its tributary 
creeks from the Craggy chain ; and the Caney, and 
I^^orth Toe Kivers in Yancey and Mitchell Counties. 

The Caney, however, is guarded by a monopoly, 
perhaps the only " preserve" in the mountains. 

These trout rarely exceed 1^ lbs. , but their abun- 
dance, their *^game qualities," and their delicious 
flavor, render the sport most delightful. Instead of 
the broil, or fry, a quick roast of twenty minutes in 
buttered tissue paper inclosed in damp wrappers and 
deposited in a glowing bed of ashes and coals best de- 
velops this fresh flavor, '' meet for Olympian feasts." 
In addition to the commoner river fish, cat, suckers, 
perch, etc., black bass, of good size, are found in many 
waters. For these the troll bait, w^ith its triple hook, 
and revolving red-and-silver spoon to simulate the 
minnow upon which bass feed, will be found most 
efficient. 

Lightly burdened with *' traps" the true sportsman 
may spend days of rare enjoyment among these hills. 



NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS. 87 

Under broad skyey tent '' riveted with these gigan- 
tic piles," with field and forest yielding up their sup- 
plies, life is reduced to primitive conditions, and its 
voices of progress and achievement (save as to " land- 
ing a big one" or " bringing down a stag"), sound 
only as faint, far echoes. 

To the kindly furnished reports of several sports- 
men who have tested these various fields the Guide- 
Book is indebted for much of the foregoing. 

Note. — Perhaps we should mention recent rumors 
of a comfortable lodging-house, to be erected imme- 
diately, on the Black Mountain. Thus the cave may 
no longer be '^ the only shelter the Dome offers." 



-HicC^pi^'^^P^D^P'I^Ek 



N- 



The most delightful summer resort of the South. 
Situated upon the summit of Caesar's Head Mountain, 
a spur of the Blue Kidge, 4500 feet above tide-water. 
Climate unrivalled ; neither dew nor frost. Perfect 
immunity from Hay. Fever. Average temperature 
during hot months 60 degrees Fah. Scenery grand 
and beautiful beyond description. A most extended 
and magnificent prospect of plains and lowlands, in 
addition to the lofty adjacent mountains. Location, 
26 miles north of Greenville, S. C. (which point is 
reached by rail from Charleston, Columbia, Atlanta, 
and Richmond), 24 miles west of Hendersonville, N. C. 
Stage-line from either place over good roads, through 
picturesque country. Time one half to one day. 
Ample accommodations. Terms moderate. Fine 
mineral waters. 

F. A. MILES, M.D., 

Proprietor. 



GASH HOUSE. 

This comfortable house for the entertainment of visitors is open 
for the season of 1881. Fare first-class. Terms very reasonable. 
Mrs. Gash will do all in her power for the comfort of guests. 
Address 

MRS. M. A. GASH, 

Brevard, N. C. 



-^KCLOUDLAND HOTEL, ^ie^ 

Top of Roan Mountain, 6391 feet above tlie sea. A most 
extended prospect of 50,000 square miles in seven States ! 100 
mountains over 4000 feet high in sight ! Cloudland Hotel is a 
comfortable building, furnished in a plain, substnnti;il manner. 
Fare first-class. Terras reasonable. $2 per day, §10 per week, 
$30 per month (four weeks). 

How TO Get There. — Comfortable covered stages leave Johnson 
City on the E. T., Va., and Ga. R. R., every Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday, reaching Cloudland, 33 miles distant, same day. 
Conveyances can be obtained at Marion, on W. N. C. R. R., 45 
miles. Address 

L. B. SEARLE, Proprietor, 

CLOUDLAND, MITCHELL. CO. 

WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS. 

Open all the year. Season of 1881. 

All persons wishing a delightful summer resort in the very 
midst of the Grandest Mountains in North Carolina, will do well 
to come to the White Sulphur Springs, near Waynesville, N. C. , 
31 miles west of Asheville, and 37 miles south of Warm Springs. 

These springs are situated in a charming valley, 3716 feet above 
the sea. The Balsam Mountains, five miles distant, are over 
G400 feet high. Daily stage-line to and from Asheville. For 
further information, address 

THOS, A. MORRIS, Proprietor; or 

W. W. Stringfield, Waynesville, N. C. 



THE ARDEN PARK HOTEL 

Will open for the season from June 1st to November 1 c. 
It is situated about 12 miles north of Hendersonville 
and 10 miles south of Asheville, and within half a mile 
of the village of Arden. Special Inducements to 
Families. 

ALEXANDER'S, FRENCH BROAD, 

10 MILES BELOW ASHEVILLE. 

This well-known House maintains its long reputation 
for the comfortable entertainment of travellers. 

Surroundings fine. Table abundant. Fishing, driv- 
ing, ten-pins, etc. Terms moderate. 

TRANSYLVANIA CO., N. C. 
A delightful Summer resort, on summit of Blue 
Ridge, containing 3600 acres of land, 3400 of which 
is primeval forest, abounding in Game^ especially Deer. 
Trout-lishing fine. The Hotel is 2800 feet above the 
sea. James M. Carson^, Proprietor. 

THE BOYDEN HOUSE. 

The only first-class Hotel in Salisbury, N. 0. 

HEAD-QUARTERS FOR COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS. 

LARGE SAMPLE-ROOMS. 

s^TisiF^^oarion^ C3-TJ^.I^^1^^T:E]:H3ID. 
C- S- BROWN, Proprietor. 

C. S. BROWN, Jr., JNO. F. AATILSON, 

Clerk. Clerk. 



(Successor to SEE, LYONS Sg SEE,) 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 

DriUoflis, Stationery aiFaflcy Ms. 

PAINTS, OILS, VARNISH, WINDOW-GLASS. 

PUBLIC SQUARE, ASHEVILLE, N. C. 

Agent for J. L. Lyons, New Orleans, and for H. C. Blair & 
Sous, Philadelphia. Agent for J. H. McLean's Reine's & Barter's 
Remedies. 

Subscriptions taken for all the American and Foreign Papers 
and Magazines, Daily and weekly papers, and all the new pub- 
lications found at my store soon after coming out, at the lowest 
price. School-books of varied kinds. Estimates cheerfully 
given. All inquiries by mail will receive prompt attention. 

James P. Sawyer, 

DEALER IN 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE, 

ASHEVILLE, N. C. 

WAYNESVILLE, FRENCH BROAD BRIDGE, 

IVY, N. C. 



W. T. ROBERTSON, 

— PUBLISHER OF — 

Stereoscopic Views 

— OF — 

SOUTHERN SCENERY, 

ASHEVILLE, N. C. 



Largest collection of Views of any one in the South ! My 
collection embraces Scenes in the Mountains of Western North 
Carolina and South Carolina, in Florida, Georgia, of Niagara 
Falls, and the Yosemite Valley and Falls. 

A large variety of Negro Groups, cotton-fields, country teams, 
characteristic sketches of Southern Life, etc., etc. 

A fine collection of views on our Railroads. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

One dozen Views sent postpaid to any part of the United 
States or Canada for $1.50. Address 

W. T. ROBERTSON, 

PDBLISIER OF STEREOSCOPIC MS, 

ASHEVILLE, N. C. 

Lock-box 128. 

VIEWS IN THIS BOOK PRINTED FROM MY PLATES. 



^AT. H. FAUCETT, 

WAYNESVILLE, N. C. 



ALL KINDS OF 



Medical Roots, Herbs, Leaves, Barks and Seeds, 



LIVERY STABLE! 

ASHEVILLE, N. C, 

Slightly West of Main Street, opposite OENTKAL HOTEL. 
Full line of fine horses and vehicles at moderate rates. Specially 
selected stock of Ladies^ Saddle Horses. Prompt attention 
to orders at all hours. 

W. T. EEYNOLDS, Propristor. 



THE WESTERN 






The only all-Rail route to 

ASHEVILLE, N. C, 



AND THE FAMOUS- 

44 



Land of the Sky." 



The mountains of the Blue Ridge here reach their greatest 
altitade, and afford a variety of mountain scenery, abounding in 
peaks, crags, precipices, cascades and waterfalls, with a richness 
and variety of verdure unsurpassed. 

The climate, while cool and bracing, is more sunny and genial 
than that of the mountain region of even Virginia. 

Pullman Cars will run during the Summer months over 
this line. 

The trip over the mountain will be made in daylight and 
afford a full and grand view. 

Close connection made at Salisbury with train leaving New 
York at 10 p.m. Take this train from Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington and Richmond, making close connection at Salis- 
bury and arriving at Asheville at 9 o'clock, a.m. 

JOHN R. MACMURDO, 

General Passenger Agent. 



"li^p-J-eF-fTp+gKY." 

SWANNANOA HOTEL, 




[2250 feet above the sea.] 



o. 



This popular Hotel, witli capacity for 250 guests, has been 
thoroughly finished and renovated, and, under the present new 
management, will be kept open Winter and Summer, Electric 
bells, speaking-tubes, bath-rooms and other conveniences have 
been added. 

Telegraph Office, Barber Shop, and Billiard-room in the 
House. The mountain views from parts of the Hotel are 
superb. Experienced and efficient cooks and servants, and 
none others employed. An Orchestra will be engaged for the 
Summer season. Terms : $2 to $3 per day, and $40 to $60 per 
month, according to location of rooms, etc. 

Rawls & Carter, Wm. Gorman, 



Proprietors. 



Manager. 



LED